Third World NetworkAgriculture in the Climate
We, member organizations of the Eastern Africa Farmers Federation (EAFF), the umbrella platform of over 20 million farmers in Eastern Africa, and member organizations of the Pan African Climate Justice Alliance (PACJA), a network of 300 civil society organizations across Africa:
Recognizing the need to promote climate change policies that meet the needs of Africa, in particular its rural poor communities, and to improve the livelihoods of farmers and other citizens through enhanced access to decision-making regarding agriculture, food security and climate change,
Recalling that food security has a central role in the ultimate objective of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which is to avoid dangerous climate change within a "time frame sufficient . to ensure that food production is not threatened",
Recalling the UNFCCC confirms that the "largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in developed countries, that per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low",
Recognizing that climate change is already causing major adverse effects in Africa, particularly in the agricultural sector, and that the scale of effects indicates that climate change is proceeding faster than predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment,
Recalling that the IPCC has confirmed that Africa is one of the most vulnerable continents, that warming in Africa is likely to be larger than the global mean warming throughout the continent and in all seasons, and that warming in Africa is projected to be roughly 1.5 times the global mean response,
Noting the "implementation gaps" in the efforts by Annex I (developed) countries under the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions and to provide the financing and technology transfer required by developing countries to mitigate and adapt to climate change,
Noting that scientific studies project that global mean warming of around 1.5°C could lead to reductions in crop yields continentally in Africa in excess of 30 percent of current levels, leading to potential for major levels of food insecurity, economic collapse and social conflict,
Expressing serious concerns that Annex I countries now seek to establish a global goal of limiting warming to below 2°C, implying warming of upwards of 3°C in Africa, which risks unprecedented and catastrophic levels of costs, damage and destruction in Africa,
Expressing concern further that Annex I countries seek to establish a global goal of reducing global emission levels by a mere 50% by 2050 from 1990 levels, which implies a risk of more than 50% of exceeding 2°C globally,
Expressing concern further that pledged emission reductions by Annex I emission offer an inadequate and inequitable contribution to reach even these goals, and that through use of accounting "loopholes" in the agriculture sector and other sectors, as well as carbon markets, they intend to further increase their domestic emissions and shift the burden of mitigation and adaptation to developing countries,
Expressing concern that, rather than address these issues, some Annex I countries now seem intent on replacing the current science- and rules-based multilateral system embodied in the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol with a weaker pledge-based system under the Copenhagen Accord and Cancun decisions,
Noting the potential for these developments, if left unaddressed, to cause widespread and major adverse implications for agricultural production, food security, rural livelihoods, farmers and human rights and economic and social development across the continent of Africa, with implications not merely for Africa but for the world,
Reiterating the issues and concerns voiced in
our joint declaration to the September 2010 African Conference on Agriculture,
Food Security and
Emphasizing the value and need for a more participatory, transparent and accountable process to address linkages between agriculture, food security, rural livelihoods, farmers and human rights and climate change, We, therefore, call for the following demands as the basis of a farmer-and civil society-led approach to UNFCCC negotiations addressing these issues in an integrated manner as follows:
On agriculture and climate change
2. We demand that farmers organizations and other civil society organizations play a central role in the design, implementation and review of all climate-related policies, including national adaptation plans of action (NAPAs) and nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs), and in the formulation of all sectoral, national, regional and international policies affecting our interests. We demand that actions to address climate change ensure the free, prior and informed consent of farmers, indigenous peoples and are gender responsive in all processes.
3. We oppose efforts by some developed countries to replace the current science- and rules-based climate architecture reflected in the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol with a weaker "pledge-based" system of mitigation and finance pledges reflected in the Copenhagen Accord. Efforts to address climate change must be based on science, principles, equity and the rule of law. Parties must implement the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol as agreed in the Bali Roadmap.
4. We thus call on Annex I countries to repay their climate debts and implement their commitments under the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol including through a second commitment period from 2013 to 2017 under the Kyoto Protocol, and through efforts to close "implementation gaps" in the Convention in areas of adaptation, mitigation, technology transfer and finance as part of a shared vision sufficient to implement the Convention, ensure the safety of Africa and secure our sustainable development.
On climate change adaptation
6. We support the Africa Group's position in Copenhagen that initial financing equivalent to at least 2.5% of Annex I countries' GNP is required to fund the full costs of adapting to climate change. We call for a system of liability and compensation for adverse impacts, particularly on smallholder farmers who have contributed nothing to climate change yet bear its worst effects.
7. We call for agriculture issues to be addressed in the formal negotiations under the UNFCCC, and not merely in its subsidiary bodies, with a focus on agriculture in discussions regarding loss and damage as well as response measures, to ensure that small-holder rural communities are protected from and compensated for the adverse effects of climate change, and that adverse policies in developed countries that undermine the livelihood and well-being of agricultural communities in Africa are removed.
On climate change mitigation
9. We express concern that Annex I countries'
pledges currently amount to a mere 17-25% from 1990 levels by 2020 (and
12-18% if the United States is included) and are well below what science
and equity demand. Without more ambitious efforts, developed countries
will appropriate a further share of Africa's atmospheric space without
compensation and risk dangerous warming, thereby threatening farmers
and other communities in
10. Annex I countries must change their highly industrialized, subsidized and polluting agricultural practices, rather than shifting the focus and burden to farming communities in developing countries. We demand an immediate closure of all loopholes and creating accounting that would enable Annex I countries to make emission reduction on paper but not in practice. Annex I countries must not use creative accounting relating to land-use, land use change and forestry or other issues to increase their domestic emissions, while shifting the burden of mitigation further to developing countries through market-based mechanism.
11. We oppose the undue focus by developed countries on mitigation and agricultural carbon in developing countries, which threaten to skew the agriculture and climate agenda away from adaptation in developing countries, and provide a means by which developed countries avoid reforming their own agriculture systems, and we call instead for an integrated and development-oriented approach focusing on food security, rural livelihoods, farmers and human rights, adaptation and liability and compensation for adverse impacts.
12. We call for an ambitious package of finance, technology transfer and capacity building to cover the full incremental costs of all nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) by developing countries. We support the Africa Group's position in Copenhagen that initial financing equivalent to at least 2.5% of Annex I countries' GNP is required to fund a major program of mitigation actions and technology transfer in developing countries. We confirm that farmer and other civil society organizations must play a central role in the design, implementation and review of NAMAs.
On technology transfer
14. Agricultural research leading to the development of climate change adaptation and mitigation technologies must be farmer-driven. Farmer organizations must be deliberately engaged in developing research agendas.
15. We call for full technology assessments to ensure that all technologies developed and transferred are environmentally sound, appropriate, affordable and adaptable to conditions in developing countries, in particular by farmers and rural communities. We oppose the use of technology transfer to push technologies that are unsuitable or dangerous.
16. We call for a programme under the UNFCCC to ensure that developed countries implement their commitment to provide technology in "all relevant sectors" (Article 4.1(c)), to fund this at "full incremental costs" (Article 4.3) and to enhance "endogenous capacities and technologies" in developing countries (Article 4.5). This agenda should not be narrowed to focus solely on agriculture.
17. We demand an end to efforts by foreign corporations to patent climate-resilient African plant and seed varieties, and call for a system of intellectual property rights tailored to the needs of small-holder farmers and that is favorable to technology transfer at all levels including through appropriate plant variety protection.
18. We support developing countries' demand for a Technology Mechanism that meets the needs of developing countries and ensures the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention. On climate change finance
19. Those who caused climate change must compensate African farmers and citizens for the adverse effects of their pollution. African countries must receive full compensation for adapting to the adverse effects of climate change (UNFCCC Article 4.4) including for crop and livestock losses and other impacts on food security. Systems for liability and compensation must be established.
20. Climate change finance should be provided from public sources from Annex I countries, and not through market-based mechanisms. This finance must be new and additional to overseas development assistance, adequate and predictable, and made directly available through a fast-track procedure. The finance must be in the form of grants, and not loans. We express concerns that the short-term finance provided by developed countries during the period 2010-2012 is largely re-packaged official development assistance, and is not new or additional.
21. We oppose efforts by Annex I countries
to appropriate more of
22. We call for a Green Climate Fund operating under the authority of the UNFCCC to support adaptation, mitigation and technology transfer - in particular in the agriculture sector through a new fund to address agriculture. Governance of climate change finance must be democratic, with an effective and transparent compliance mechanism. Farmer organizations must play a role in the tracking, monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of these funds.
On capacity building
24. Farmer organizations need to effectively participate in the various climate change policy processes including the UNFCCC negotiations, the African Environmental Ministers Conference (AMCEN) and other relevant national, regional and global bodies.
On a shared vision
26. We recognize that the Earth's atmosphere
is a global commons that must be shared equally among all people. We
reject attempts by the developed countries to "grab" this
resource as a form of climate colonialism. We call on them to share
the atmospheric space fairly with
27. We express solidarity for farmers organizations and other civil society groups and over 100 countries calling for global temperature increases to be limited to below 1 or 1.5°C, as an essential outcome to safeguards the interests of farmers and other vulnerable communities. Warming of as little as 1°C risks temperature increases of over 1.5°C in parts of Africa, which will warm more than the global average, and will require major levels of compensation for damage to African farmers and communities.
On further negotiations under the UNFCCC
On a development-oriented approach
30. In addition to the actions above directly
within the context of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol, we call for
efforts as part of a development-oriented approach to ensure:
31. We believe that an ambitious global effort
to combat climate change and to secure the lives and livelihoods farmers
and citizens across the continent of