About the Book
Climate change is the biggest problem facing humanity and the Earth. To address it requires fundamental changes to economies, social structures, lifestyles globally and in each country.
International cooperation is crucial. But to achieve this is difficult and complex, because there are many contentious issues involved, not least the respective roles and responsibilities of developed and developing countries.
This book is an account of the outcomes and negotiations at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It covers the Convention's annual Conference of Parties (COP) from Bali (2007) to Paris (2015), where the Paris Agreement was adopted, to 2018 where the rules on implementing Paris were approved, and to Madrid (2019).
The two main authors took part in all the COPs analysed except the 2019 COP. The book thus provides a unique ringside view of the crucial negotiations and their results at the UNFCCC as the different countries and their groups grappled with the details on how to save the world, and who should take what actions.
This brief account will be useful, even indispensable, for policy-makers, researchers, civil society activists and all those interested in the climate change issue.
MARTIN KHOR was Adviser to the Third World Network and was formerly Executive Director of the South Centre (2009 to 2018). Author of several books on trade, development and the environment, he participated at the COPs from 2007 to 2014 as an observer.
MEENAKSHI RAMAN is Senior Legal Adviser and Coordinator of Third World Network's Climate Change Programme. She was an observer at the COPs from 2007 to 2018.
I. COP 13 BALI (DECEMBER 2007)
Bali climate talks to decide fate of Kyoto Protocol by Martin Khor
Divisive start to Bali climate talks, North presses for new agreement by Martin Khor
Bali conference ends, new group to take up unresolved issues by Martin Khor
Final hours of drama that led to the Bali decision by Hira Jhamtani and Meenakshi Raman
II. COP 14 POZNAN (DECEMBER 2008)
Key issues dominating the Poznan talks by Martin Khor
Poznan meetings end after intense ‘mini-Ministerial’ talks by Lim Li Lin
III. COP 15 COPENHAGEN (DECEMBER 2009)
The failure of Copenhagen by Martin Khor
Copenhagen climate summit ends in discord by Martin Khor
IV. COP 16 CANCUN (NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 2010)
Strange outcome of Cancun climate conference by Martin Khor
V. COP 17 DURBAN (NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 2011)
Durban conference launches negotiations for new global deal by Martin Khor
VI. COP 18 DOHA (NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 2012)
Climate conference of low ambitions by Martin Khor
VII. COP 19 WARSAW (NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 2013)
The Warsaw United Nations climate change conference – an overview by Martin Khor
Fight over developed-developing country differentiation in 2015 ‘agreement’
by Meenakshi Raman
COP 19 establishes Warsaw international mechanism for loss and damage by Zhenyan Zhu
VIII. COP 20 LIMA (NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 2014)
Understanding the Lima climate conference: a proxy battle for the 2015
Paris Agreement by Martin Khor
Comments on the Lima COP 20 decision on the Durban Platform by Meenakshi Raman
IX. COP 21 PARIS (NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 2015)
The climate change battle in Paris: an updated analysis of the Paris COP 21
and the Paris Agreement by Meenakshi Raman
COP 21 decision on enhanced action prior to 2020 by Indrajit Bose
X. COP 22 MARRAKECH (NOVEMBER 2016)
The outcome and process at the Marrakech COP 22 climate talks: a start to the
battle of Interpretation of the Paris Agreement by Meenakshi Raman
XI. COP 23 BONN (NOVEMBER 2017)
Overview of outcomes at the 2017 climate talks by Meenakshi Raman
XII. COP 24 KATOWICE (DECEMBER 2018)
UN climate change conference ushers in ‘Katowice Climate Package’
by Meenakshi Raman and Evelyn Teh
The key decisions on the Paris Agreement implementation rules by Meenakshi Raman
Important finance decisions adopted at climate talks by Indrajit Bose and Meenakshi Raman
XIII. COP 25 MADRID (NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 2019)
COP 25 ends amidst major North-South differences by Meenakshi Raman
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