TWN Info Service on WTO and Trade Issues (Feb17/15)
21 February 2017
Third World Network
United Nations: Austerity-related labour reforms harmful to working people
Published in SUNS #8403 dated 16 February 2017
Geneva, 15 Feb (Kanaga Raja) - Austerity-related labour market reforms promoted
by multilateral and regional financial institutions in many developed and
developing countries have been shown to not help economies recover after
crises, and have instead inflicted substantial harm on working people, which
will be felt for many years.
This is one of the main findings of the UN Independent Expert on the effects of
foreign debt on the enjoyment of all human rights, Mr Juan Pablo Bohoslavsky
(from Argentina), in his latest report to the thirty-fourth session of the UN
Human Rights Council, which meets here from 27 February to 24 March.
In his report, the rights expert observed that many States with unsustainable
levels of debt or experiencing a financial crisis have implemented austerity
policies and labour market reforms with a strong deregulatory impetus, either
on their own initiative or at the behest of external creditors, including
international or regional financial institutions.
"Such reforms have often reduced the legal protection of workers and
affected the bargaining power of trade unions, with important implications for
workers' standard of living, economic equality and social cohesion, among
In a number of cases, these reforms have amounted to violations of human rights
obligations and international labour standards, as documented by, among others,
the international bodies monitoring these rights, said the Independent Expert.
In his present report, the rights expert challenged what he said is the
widespread belief that deregulating the labour market will further growth and
"An increasing number of studies have actually pointed to the positive
economic effects of labour standards, including on productivity and innovation.
In addition, evidence that downscaling domestic labour legislation has actually
helped to ensure economic and financial recovery is weak," he said.
He pointed out that financial crises are usually not caused by excessive labour
regulation and labour deregulation does not help to overcome them.
In fact, he said, conventional austerity-related labour reforms implemented
during the last years do not seem to have helped countries recover nor have
they resulted in restoring access to employment to pre-crisis levels.
Instead, they have undermined labour and other social rights contained in
"It is therefore time to question the conventional wisdom that the
deregulation of labour markets is a suitable and legitimate approach for
responding to financial crises. Rather, the opposite is needed, that is, reform
measures guided by the normative content of labour rights contained in
international human rights law that foster gender equality, enhance employment
and provide better access to these rights for marginalized groups and
individuals," said the rights expert.
According to the report, in many developed and developing countries,
austerity-related labour law reforms have been promoted by multilateral and regional
financial institutions on the assumption that they will lead to economic growth
and thus prevent or help overcome debt crises.
They have often recommended or insisted, as part of their lending
conditionality, that the labour market be made more flexible through
deregulation, downsizing the public sector and freezing or reducing wages and
work- related social benefits in an effort to reduce government expenditure.
"Austerity measures and labour market reforms have often contravened the
international human rights obligations of States, eroded labour rights and
resulted in the retrogression of work-related gender equality," said Mr
They have contributed to an increase in inequality and insecure and informal
employment; fostered discrimination in the labour market towards young and
older persons and individuals belonging to marginalized social groups; and
resulted in the reduction of unemployment benefits and other job-related social
The rights expert noted that the mainstream assumption that labour rights are
generally detrimental to economic development has been challenged at
theoretical and empirical levels and it has been shown more concretely that
austerity-related labour market reforms do not usually help economies to recover
"Actually, these reforms have not improved economic performance; instead
they have inflicted substantial harm on working people, which will be felt for
Financial crises can affect labour rights in a number of ways. Obviously,
financial crises may reduce economic growth and employment and impair the right
to work, said the report.
However, in addition, governments have often undertaken reform measures that
directly affect labour rights such as reduction in wages and employment in the
public sector aimed at reducing public expenditure or labour market
deregulation in the private sector purportedly to increase competitiveness, or
indirectly such as by creating economic conditions which increase pressure on
workers, reducing wages or threatening employment, for example, through
privatization of public enterprises, trade liberalization or cutting domestic
While the links between debt crises and labour law reform are complex, it is
safe to say that unsustainable public debt levels often play a key role in a
government's decision to adopt economic adjustment reforms, with various
implications for labour rights.
In this regard, said the report, the stimulus for reform can come from external
actors, notably key creditors of the State concerned, while, in other cases,
the political impulse for reform policies has stemmed from the Government
"Financial crises and labour reforms can result in a vicious downward
spiral that depresses labour rights," the rights expert cautioned.
"Increased unemployment and weakened trade unions have the potential to
entrench income inequality and stagnation of workers' wages in the bottom half
of the labour market and trade unions lose the power to fulfil their
traditional role of contributing to redistribution".
Consequently, workers may borrow beyond their means to maintain their standard
of living; weakened individual and collective labour rights may increase the
risk of financial crises which, in turn, may lead to further deregulation of
The report noted that labour-related austerity policies have been openly pushed
by a number of official key creditors, including the World Bank and the
International Monetary Fund (IMF), and together, more recently, with the
European Commission and the European Central Bank - the so-called Troika.
It said especially since the late 1980s, labour-related conditionality has
featured prominently in IMF financial assistance programmes.
Indeed, around 50 per cent of all lending programmes have involved one or more
labour-related conditions over the period from 1994 to 2007.
Since then, the number of IMF programmes with labour conditionalities appears
to have fallen, but still, between 25 to 40 per cent of IMF programmes adopted
until 2014 contained labour-related conditions relating to the public or the
"While the IMF has occasionally supported moderate improvements in labour
standards, its prevalent stance regarding labour law has been a deregulatory
Close to one third of the available letters of intent addressed by governments
to the IMF between 1998 and 2005 contained commitments to be flexible with
labour market regulation.
Early cases can be tracked to the 1950s, such as when the IMF required
Argentina to control wage increases.
Adjustment measures implemented during the 1980s in the context of the Mexican
debt crisis entailed a considerable reduction in both the number of public
employees and their salaries, among others.
In recent years, austerity-driven labour law reforms have remained a widespread
trend, said the report.
No fewer than 89 countries implemented such reforms between 2010 and 2015 and
more than half (49) of them were implemented in developing countries.
In addition, 130 countries had reportedly implemented or were contemplating
cuts in or caps on public-sector salaries, more than two thirds (96) of which
were developing countries.
According to the rights expert, in the context of the eurozone crisis, labour
law reforms have been particularly far-reaching.
Crisis-stricken eurozone countries have notably adopted legislation to reduce
the economic costs of laying off workers.
This was done through measures such as cutting severance pay, shortening
notification periods, lowering the protection against unfair dismissal and
easing the rules on collective redundancies, among others.
Austerity measures and economic reform programmes have often conflicted with
the human rights obligations of States. These range from minor interferences
with - to complete negation of - relevant rights and cover a number of issues,
According to the report, international financial institutions and national
development banks must also respect labour rights when providing loans to
States and imposing the condition to implement certain fiscal and
macro-economic reform policies.
"If implemented, fiscal consolidation programmes must fully respect human
rights standards as must borrowing States and lenders, including lending
international organizations and States. Both lenders and borrowers have an
obligation to carry out a human rights impact assessment prior to the provision
of a loan, in order to ensure that the conditionalities do not
disproportionately affect economic, social and cultural rights nor lead to discrimination,"
Mr Bohoslavsky underlined.
In several instances, he noted, the economic adjustment reforms undertaken by
States have created tension with regard to the right to fair remuneration.
Labour law reforms facilitating the hiring and layoff of workers have led to
tensions with regard to human rights obligations.
Trade union-related rights have also frequently been affected by labour law
reforms undertaken in the context of crisis-related economic adjustments.
Adjustment reforms undertaken to prevent, mitigate or overcome sovereign debt
crises have affected workers' human rights on a number of occasions and in
In a study that examined data on 131 developing countries over the period from
1981 to 2003, it was found that the longer the time span during which a country
was subjected to a structural adjustment programme sponsored by the IMF and the
World Bank, the lower the level of protection of labour rights in its
Another study that analysed data from 123 developing and emerging economies
found a significant negative relation between IMF and World Bank programmes and
collective labour rights, notably with regard to workers' freedom of
association and the right to collective bargaining, both in law and in
"This adds to the literature on the impact of currency crises on labour
standards, which found that such crises reduce the aggregate labour share,
notably in the manufacturing sector, and lead to a decline in real wages and
higher general and youth unemployment, among others," said the rights
Workers' wages have very often been affected by economic adjustment reforms, he
A study of 110 countries identified a negative effect of IMF financial
assistance programmes on the labour share in the manufacturing sector.
IMF and World Bank-sponsored adjustment programmes implemented in the 1980s
reportedly went along with the drastic declines in real wages in a number of
Trade unions have also been weakened in countries undertaking economic
adjustment. A study using data on 39 least developed countries, carried out
during the second half of the 1990s, showed that the signing of an IMF loan
arrangement and debt service was negatively associated with the level of
"The privatization of public companies promoted by IMF and World
Bank-driven adjustment programmes has, in several developing countries, such as
India, furthered the fragmentation and weakening of local trade unions,"
said the report.
Labour market reforms undertaken during the European economic crisis heavily
affected collective bargaining in the countries concerned.
For example, said the report, Greece saw a strong decrease in sectoral
collective bargaining combined with the spread of company-level agreements by
non-union organizations; in Romania, the 2011 labour law reforms heavily
affected trade unions' capacity to engage in effective collective bargaining at
the national and sectoral levels; and in Portugal, the number of collective
agreements adopted per year dropped dramatically between 2008 and 2012, as did
the number of workers covered by those agreements.
The weakening of labour rights under structural adjustment programmes has
entailed adverse implications for other human rights, said the rights expert,
pointing out that in Zimbabwe, for example, substantial layoffs in the public
sector, among other factors, reportedly pushed a number of workers and their
families into poverty and homelessness, affecting their right to food and
"Austerity-related labour law reforms undertaken in the course of the
eurozone crisis are - together with reforms of pension systems - expected to
result in widespread old-age poverty," Mr Bohoslavsky warned.
In Greece, the income loss brought about by the austerity measures, labour law
reforms and the scaling down of the public sector have led to an increase in
poverty, in particular among workers in the private sector, which has been
exacerbated by the lack of a social security system capable of providing for sufficient
Other adverse effects concern the quality of the public service. Reductions in
public servants' salaries can affect productivity in the public sector, which,
in turn, lends itself to an argument for privatization or additional wage cuts.
In Cote d'Ivoire, reductions in teachers' salaries, as recommended by the IMF
and the World Bank, appear to have had a negative impact on education quality,
owing to cross-border brain drain.
Finally, said the rights expert, IMF and World Bank-sponsored adjustment
programmes have, in some cases, been associated with violations of civil and
For example, since the 1950s in Argentina, IMF programmes have repeatedly been
accompanied by violence against trade unions opposing labour market-related
measures, involving, among others, crackdown on protests and imprisonment of
"In numerous countries, the effects of austerity policies have led to
protests and riots, often accompanied by the disproportionate use of force by
law enforcement officials against demonstrators and resulting in violations of
civil and political rights."
He emphasised that the assumption that labour rights are generally detrimental
to economic development has been vigorously challenged at the theoretical level
and refuted by empirical data.
"Evidence that austerity-related labour market reforms have contributed to
economic recovery after debt-related economic crises is weak. Sometimes it
appears that debt crises have rather provided a pretext to push through labour
market reforms favouring business interests rather than addressing economic
problems. It is therefore not surprising that debt crises frequently exacerbate
According to conventional wisdom, labour legislation, in particular employment
protection legislation, is a main obstacle to economic growth and employment.
In this regard, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD), IMF and the World Bank have advocated that high labour protection
standards are a driver of unemployment, among others, and should be scaled
"Those views have, however, been challenged on a number of fronts,"
the Independent Expert noted.
With regard to developing countries, evidence of a negative impact of labour
standards on a country's economic performance appears to be weak.
While relevant data on developing countries is scarce, research on Argentina,
for example, suggests that labour market deregulation seems to have reduced
employment elasticities instead of increasing them.
A study analysing data on various countries from 1985 to 1994 found that higher
labour standards correlated with lower levels of corruption, among other
Overall, said the report, research suggests that the economic implications of
labour legislation are significantly complex, vary across countries and
economic sectors and can, more importantly, even increase economic efficiency,
depending on the context.
In many cases, said the report, "factors other than labour standards seem
to play a stronger role in influencing economic outcomes. The economic case for
dismantling labour standards, including in the area of collective bargaining
and dismissal protection, is, hence, weak."
If encroaching on labour rights does not have any justifiable benefits, even
for rights holders who are outside the labour market, and if downsizing labour
rights does not lead to enhanced enjoyment of economic and social rights for
all, such retrogressive measures cannot be considered as permissible and
justifiable responses to financial and economic crises, the report stressed.
Empirical findings overall do not seem supportive of the claim that labour law
deregulation fosters recovery after economic crises, said the rights expert.
Evidence from Latin America suggests that reforms that deregulated individual
and collective labour law in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and
Uruguay in the 1980s and 1990s, led neither to less informal employment nor
reduced employment instability, which saw an increase during that period.
"Indeed, in several Latin American countries, the weakening of employment
protection legislation appears to have aggravated the precariousness of work
with little evidence of improved employment performance."
The economic effects of the austerity measures taken recently in the context of
the eurozone crisis appear to be similarly weak.
Research suggests that the European Union countries that performed relatively
better during the economic crisis of 2007 to 2011 were those that had less flexible
Overall, said the report, there is little evidence that labour market
deregulation furthers recovery in the context of financial and economic crises,
while the negative impact on economic and social rights is substantial.
"This also highlights the potential relevance of other factors behind
deregulatory reforms that undermine labour standards, such as ideological bias
and non-explicit retrogressive distributional agendas," it added.
The rights expert underlined that it is essential to submit austerity-related
reforms to robust human rights impact assessments before they are carried out.
First of all, any such impact assessment should include an assessment of the
impact of such measures on the population, including whether there are any
viable human rights compliant policy alternatives to austerity reforms, before
they are carried out and should recommend policies that meet the economic needs
of the country in a manner that fully protects human rights.
Too often, the measures taken, as in the case of European austerity, have not
improved the economic situation, but have, simultaneously, substantially
worsened the human rights of millions of people, he said.
Human rights impact assessments should feed into both the policymaking of the State
considering reforms as well as that of the external actors recommending or
requiring such reforms, such as international financial institutions, the
rights expert added.