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Shrinking Biodiversity of Plants Cultivated for Food Poses Severe Threat

The article below was published in Third World Network Features #4774-4776, 4 March 2019.

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March 2019

SHRINKING BIODIVERSITY OF PLANTS CULTIVATED FOR FOOD POSES SEVERE THREAT

The largest number of wild food species in decline is reported in countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, followed by Asia-Pacific and Africa.

By Jaya Ramachandran

ROME (IDN) In the first-ever report of its kind FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, has presented surging and perturbing evidence that the biodiversity that underpins our food systems is disappearing putting the global population痴 health, livelihoods and environment under severe threat.

FAO痴 State of the World痴 Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture report, launched on February 22 warns that once lost, biodiversity for food and agriculture cannot be recovered.

Accentuating the importance of the report, FAO痴 Director-General Jos Graziano da Silva said: 釘iodiversity is critical for safeguarding global food security, underpinning healthy and nutritious diets, improving rural livelihoods, and enhancing the resilience of people and communities. We need to use biodiversity in a sustainable way, so that we can better respond to rising climate change challenges and produce food in a way that doesn稚 harm our environment.

Graziano da Silva added: 鏑ess biodiversity means that plants and animals are more vulnerable to pests and diseases. Compounded by our reliance on fewer and fewer species to feed ourselves, the increasing loss of biodiversity for food and agriculture puts food security and nutrition at risk.

Biodiversity for food and agriculture is all the plants and animals wild and domesticated that provide food, feed, fuel and fibre. It is also the myriad of organisms that support food production through ecosystem services called 殿ssociated biodiversity, explains the report.

This includes all the plants, animals and micro-organisms (such as insects, bats, birds, mangroves, corals, seagrasses, earthworms, soil-dwelling fungi and bacteria) that keep soils fertile, pollinate plants, purify water and air, keep fish and trees healthy, and fight crop and livestock pests and diseases.

The report, prepared by FAO under the guidance of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture  the only permanent intergovernmental body that specifically addresses biological diversity for food and agriculture looks at all these elements. It is based on information provided specifically for this report by 91 countries, and the analysis of the latest global data.

Some of the highlights of the report are:

Of some 6,000 plant species cultivated for food, fewer than 200 contribute substantially to global food output, and only nine account for 66% of total crop production.

The world痴 livestock production is based on about 40 animal species, with only a handful providing the vast majority of meat, milk and eggs. Of the 7,745 local (occurring in one country) breeds of livestock reported globally, 26% are at risk of extinction.

Nearly a third of fish stocks are overfished, more than half have reached their sustainable limit.

Information from the 91 reporting countries gathered by FAO reveals that wild food species and many species that contribute to ecosystem services vital to food and agriculture, including pollinators, soil organisms and natural enemies of pests, are rapidly disappearing.

For example, says the report, countries report that 24% of nearly 4,000 wild food species mainly plants, fish and mammals are decreasing in abundance. But the proportion of wild foods in decline is likely to be even greater as the state of more than half of the reported wild food species is unknown.

The largest number of wild food species in decline appears in countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, followed by Asia-Pacific and Africa. This could be, however, a result of wild food species being more studied and/or reported on in these countries than in others.

Many associated biodiversity species are also under severe threat. These include birds, bats and insects that help control pests and diseases, soil biodiversity, and wild pollinators such as bees, butterflies, bats and birds.

Forests, rangelands, mangroves, seagrass meadows, coral reefs and wetlands in general key ecosystems that deliver numerous services essential to food and agriculture and are home to countless species are also rapidly declining.

The driver of biodiversity for food and agriculture loss, according to most reporting countries is: changes in land and water use and management, followed by pollution, overexploitation and overharvesting, climate change, and population growth and urbanization.

In the case of associated biodiversity, while all regions report habitat alteration and loss as major threats, other key drivers vary across regions, says the report. These are overexploitation, hunting and poaching in Africa; deforestation, changes in land use and intensified agriculture in Europe and Central Asia; overexploitation, pests, diseases and invasive species in Latin America and the Caribbean; overexploitation in the Near East and North Africa, and deforestation in Asia.

But the report also presents an encouraging scenario of biodiversity-friendly practices. Eighty percent of the 91 countries indicate using one or more biodiversity-friendly practices and approaches such as: organic agriculture, integrated pest management, conservation agriculture, sustainable soil management, agroecology, sustainable forest management, agroforestry, diversification practices in aquaculture, ecosystem approach to fisheries and ecosystem restoration.

Conservation efforts, both on-site (e.g. protected areas, on farm management) and off-site (e.g. gene banks, zoos, culture collections, botanic gardens) are also increasing globally, although levels of coverage and protection are often inadequate.

While the rise in biodiversity-friendly practices is encouraging, more needs to be done to stop the loss of biodiversity for food and agriculture, states the report. 溺ost countries have put in place legal, policy and institutional frameworks for the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity, but these are often inadequate or insufficient.

The report, therefore, calls on governments and the international community to do more to strengthen enabling frameworks, create incentives and benefit-sharing measures, promote pro-biodiversity initiatives and address the core drivers of biodiversity loss.

Greater efforts must also be made to improve the state of knowledge of biodiversity for food and agriculture as many information gaps remain, particularly for associated biodiversity species. Many such species have never been identified and described, particularly invertebrates and micro-organisms. Over 99% of bacteria and protist species and their impact on food and agriculture remain unknown.

There is a need to improve collaboration among policy-makers, producer organizations, consumers, the private sector and civil-society organizations across food and agriculture and environment sectors.

Opportunities to develop more markets for biodiversity-friendly products could be explored more, says the report highlighting the role the general public can play in reducing pressures on biodiversity for food and agriculture.

Consumers, says the report, may be able to opt for sustainably grown products, buy from farmers markets, or boycott foods seen as unsustainable. In several countries, 田itizen scientists play an important role in monitoring biodiversity for food and agriculture.

Examples: impacts of biodiversity loss and biodiversity-friendly practices

In The Gambia, massive losses of wild foods have forced communities to turn to alternatives, often industrially produced foods, to supplement their diets.

In Egypt, rising temperatures will lead to northwards shifts in ranges of fish species, with impacts on fishery production.

Labour shortages, flows of remittances and increasing availability of cheap alternative products on local markets have contributed to local crops abandonment in Nepal.

In the Amazonian forests of Peru, climatic changes are predicted to lead to 都avannization, with negative impacts on wild foods supply.

Californian farmers allow their rice fields to flood in winter instead of burning them after growing season. This provides 111,000 hectares of wetlands and open space for 230 bird species, many at risk of extinction. As a result, many species have begun to increase in numbers, and the number of ducks has doubled.

In France, about 300,000 hectares of land are managed using agroecological principles.

In Kiribati, integrated farming of milkfish, sandfish, sea cucumber and seaweed ensures regular food and income as despite changing weather conditions, at least one component of the system is always producing food. Third World Network Features.

-ends-

The above article is reproduced from IDN-InDepthNews, 23 February 2019.

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