In Maria's wake, could Puerto Rico go totally green?
In the following article, Harvey Wasserman makes a strong case for Puerto Rico to go green by abandoning the old paradigm of centrally generated and distributed electricity based on fossil fuels and moving instead to a decentralised network of green-based microgrids. Since this article was written, automaker Tesla has moved in to deliver solar power to a children's hospital in Puerto Rico.
THE ecological and humanitarian destruction of Puerto Rico has left the world aghast. But there is a hopeful green-powered opportunity in this disaster that could vastly improve the island's future while offering the world a critical showcase for a sane energy future.
By all accounts Hurricane Maria has levelled much of the island, and literally left it in the dark. Puerto Rico's electrical grid has been extensively damaged, with no prospects for a return to conventionally generated and distributed power for months to come.
In response, US President Donald Trump has scolded the island for its massive debt, and waited a full week after the storm hit to lift a shipping restriction requiring all incoming goods to be carried on US-flagged ships. (That restriction is largely responsible for the island's economic problems in the first place.)
The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority is a state-owned operation that hosts a number of solar and wind farms, as well as a network of hydroelectric dams. But the bulk of its energy supply has come from heavy industrial oil, diesel and gas burners. It also burns coal imported from Colombia at a plant in Guayama.
The fossil burners themselves apparently were left mostly undamaged by Maria. But the delivery system, a traditional network of above-ground poles and wires, has essentially been obliterated. Power authority officials say it could take at least 4-6 months to rebuild that network. And of course, there is no guaranteeing such a pole-and-wire set-up would not then be obliterated by the next storm.
Among the most serious casualties have been the island's hospitals. According to reports, 58 of Puerto Rico's 69 medical facilities have been blacked out. At least two people died when intensive care units went dark.
But therein lies the opportunity. With solar panels and battery backups, every one of those hospitals could be energy self-sufficient. Throughout the US, such technology is now being applied at medical facilities, data processing and storage facilities, and other critical units.
According to Mark Sommer, a California-based energy expert, Puerto Rico could safeguard such critical facilities and far more quickly restore its power by letting go of the old paradigm of centrally generated and distributed electricity, and moving instead to a decentralised network of green-based microgrids.
Microgrids are community-based networks that power smaller geographic and consumer areas than the big central grids like the one that served Puerto Rico. Mostly they are based on decentralised generation, including networks of rooftop solar panels. As Sommer puts it, 'Renewably powered microgrids are a relatively simple and already mature technology that can be deployed in months rather than years and once the initial investment is recovered deliver dramatically lower energy bills.'
Because Puerto Rico is mountainous and hosts many small, remote villages, the island's best hope for a manageable energy future is with decentralised power production in self-sustaining neighbourhoods. Built around small-scale wind and solar arrays, with battery backups protected from inevitable floods and hurricanes, Puerto Rico could protect its electricity supply from the next natural disaster while building up a healthy, low-cost energy economy.
The island is also a good source of sugar cane and other fast-growing tropical vegetation, making a strong case for biomass sources like ethanol. Much of Brazil's automobile fleet runs at least partly on fuel produced by fermenting bagasse, a by-product of the country's huge sugar cane crop.
With local financing and ownership, the prospects for a sun-drenched ecosystem like Puerto Rico's to go to renewable-based microgrids are overwhelming. In terms of cost, immediacy, immunity from the next hurricane and long-term sustainability, this is a tragic but unique opportunity.
There is little precedent for an entire geographic entity to lose 100% of its grid. We can expect a deaf ear on this from a Trump administration dominated by the fossil fuel and nuclear power industries.
But to rebuild Puerto Rico's electric grid in a traditional centralised fashion would only prolong Maria's agony while leaving the island deathly vulnerable to the next big wind storm.
Puerto Rico's best hope for a safe, prosperous, sustainable energy future is to take control of its power supply with a mix of renewable generation, protected backup storage, and a decentralised, local-based network of community-owned microgrids.
Harvey Wasserman is co-founder of the global grassroots No Nukes movement and author or co-author of 20 books, including Solartopia! Our Green-Powered Earth (solartopia.org) and The Last Energy War (Seven Stories Press). The above article is reproduced from Progressive.org.
*Third World Resurgence No. 322/323, Jun/July 2017, p 24