Open Letter from World Scientists to All Governments

2 Jan 2000


We, the undersigned scientists, call for the immediate suspension of all environmental releases of GM crops and products; for patents on life-forms and living processes to be revoked and banned; and for a comprehensive public enquiry into the future of agriculture and food security for all.

Patents on life-forms and living processes threaten food security, sanction biopiracy of indigenous knowledge and genetic resources, violate basic human rights and dignity, compromise healthcare, impede medical and scientific research and are against the welfare of animals.

Life-forms such as organisms, seeds, cell lines and genes are discoveries and hence not patentable. Current GM techniques which exploit living processes are unreliable, uncontrollable and unpredictable, and do not qualify as inventions. Furthermore, those techniques are inherently hazardous, as are many GM organisms and products.

The latest largescale surveys of GM crops showed they offered no benefits. On the contrary, they yield significantly less and require more herbicides. GM crops intensify corporate monopoly on food which is driving family farmers to destitution, and preventing the essential shift to sustainable agriculture that can guarantee food security and health around the world

The hazards of GM crops and products to biodiversity and human and animal health are now becoming apparent, and some even acknowledged by sources within the UK and US Governments. In particular, the horizontal spread of antibiotic resistance marker genes from GM crops will compromise the treatment of life-threatening infectious diseases which have come back worldwide. New findings show that the horizontal spread of transgenic DNA can occur, not only by ingestion but via breathing in pollen and dust. The cauliflower mosaic viral promoter, widely used in GM crops, may enhance horizontal gene transfer and has the potential to generate new viruses that cause diseases.

We urge all Governments to take account of the scientific evidence in accordance with the precautionary principle, to negotiate a strong and effective International Biosafety Protocol under the CBD, and to ensure that biosafety legislations at the national and international levels take precedence over trade and financial agreements at the WTO. Research into sustainable agricultural methods that do not require GM crops should be widely supported. Many sustainable agricultural systems have already resulted in increased yields and diminished environmental impacts around the world.

* * *

We, the undersigned scientists, call for the immediate suspension of all environmental releases of GM crops and products, both commercially and in open field trials, for at least 5 years; for patents on living processes, organisms, seeds, cell lines and genes to be revoked and banned; and for a comprehensive public enquiry into the future of agriculture and food security for all.

1 Patents on life-forms and living processes threaten food security, sanction biopiracy of indigenous knowledge and genetic resources, violate basic human rights and dignity, compromise healthcare, impede medical and scientific research and are against the welfare of animals. Life-forms such as organisms, seeds, cell lines and genes are discoveries and hence not patentable. Current GM techniques which exploit living processes are unreliable, uncontrollable and unpredictable, and do not qualify as inventions. Furthermore, those techniques are inherently hazardous, as are many GM organisms and products.

2. It is becoming increasingly clear that current GM crops are neither needed nor beneficial. They are a dangerous diversion from the real task of providing food and health around the world.

3. The promises to genetic engineer crops to fix nitrogen, resist drought, improve yield and to 'feed the world' have been around for at least 30 years. Such promises have built up a multibillion-dollar industry now controlled by a mere handful of corporate giants.

4. The miracle crops have not materialised. Instead, two simple characteristics account for all the GM crops in the world. More than 70% are tolerant to broad-spectrum herbicides, with companies engineering plants to be tolerant to their own brand of herbicide, while the rest are engineered with bt-toxins to kill insect pests. A total of 65 million acres were planted in 1998 within the US, Argentina and Canada. The latest surveys on GM crops in the US, the largest grower by far, showed no significant benefit. On the contrary, the most widely grown GM crops - herbicide-tolerant soya beans - yielded on average 6.7% less and required two to five times more herbicides than non-GM varieties.

5. According to the UN food programme, there is enough food to feed the world one and a half times over. World cereal yields have consistently outstripped population growth since 1980, but one billion are hungry. It is on account of corporate monopoly operating under the globalised economy that the poor are getting poorer and hungrier. Family farmers all over the world have been driven to destitution and suicide, and for the same reasons. Between 1993 and 1997 the number of mid-sized farms in the US dropped by 74,440, and farmers are now receiving below the average cost of production for their produce. Four corporations currently control 85% of the world trade in cereals.

6. The new patents on seeds will intensify corporate monopoly by preventing farmers from saving and replanting seeds, which is what most farmers still do in the Third World. Christian Aid, a major charity working with the Third World, concludes that GM crops will cause unemployment, exacerbate Third World debt, threaten sustainable farming systems and damage the environment. It predicts famine for the poorest countries.

7. A coalition of family farming groups in the US have issued a comprehensive list of demands, including a ban on ownership of all life-forms; a suspension of sales, environmental releases and further approvals of all GM crops and products pending an independent, comprehensive assessment of the social, environmental, health and economic impacts; and for corporations to be made liable for all damages arising from GM crops and products to livestock, human beings and the environment. They are also demanding a moratorium on all corporate mergers and acquisitions, a moratorium on farm closures, and an end to policies that serve big agribusiness interests at the expense of family farmers, taxpayers and the environment.

8. The hazards of GM crops are now becoming apparent, and some of them are even acknowledged by sources within the UK and US Governments. For example, the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) has admitted that the transfer of GM crops and pollen beyond the planted fields is unavoidable, and this has already resulted in herbicide-tolerant weeds. Bt-resistant insect pests have evolved in response to the continuous presence of the toxins in GM plants throughout the growing season, and the US Environment Protection Agency is recommending farmers to plant up to 40% non-GM crops in order to create refugia for non-resistant insect pests. The broad-spectrum herbicides used with herbicide-tolerant GM crops not only decimate wild species indiscriminately, but are toxic to animals. One of them, glufosinate, causes birth defects in mammals, A Swedish study now links the top-selling herbicide, glyphosate, to non-Hodgkin lymphoma. GM crops with bt-toxins kill beneficial insects such as bees and lacewings, and pollen from bt-maize is lethal to monarch butterflies. GM potatoes with snowdrop lectin, previously found to harm ladybirds, are now confirmed to be toxic to young rats.

9. Products resulting from genetically modified organisms have also been found to be hazardous. For example, a batch of tryptophan produced by GM microorganisms was associated with at least 37 deaths and 1500 serious illnesses. Genetically modified Bovine Growth Hormone, injected into cows in order to increase milk yield, not only causes excessive suffering and illnesses for the cows but increases IGF-1 in the milk, which is linked to breast and prostate cancers in humans. It is vital for the public to be protected from all GM products, and not only those containing transgenic DNA or protein.

10. A potential source of health hazards from GM crops is from the secondary horizontal transfer of transgenic DNA to unrelated species; in principle, to all species interacting with the transgenic plants. The spread of antibiotic resistance marker genes to pathogens is the most immediate danger as this will further compromise treatment of life-threatening drug and antibiotic resistance diseases which have come back worldwide. However, the random insertion of foreign DNA into genomes associated with horizontal transfer of transgenic DNA can also result in many harmful effects, including cancer in mammalian cells. The potential for horizontal gene transfer is now also acknowledged by sources within the US and UK Governments.

11. The possibility for naked or free DNA to be taken up by mammalian cells is explicitly mentioned in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance to industry on antibiotic resistance marker genes. In commenting on the FDA's document, the UK MAFF pointed out that transgenic DNA may be transferred not just by ingestion, but by contact with plant dust and air-borne pollen during farm work and food processing, and cited several significant new findings bearing on the issue.

12. Thus, plant DNA is not readily degraded during most commercial food processing. Procedures such as grinding and milling left grain DNA largely intact, as did heat-treatment at 90oC. Plants placed in silage showed little degradation of DNA, and the special UK MAFF report advises against using GM plants or plant waste in animal feed.

13. The letter from UK MAFF to US FDA also mentions new findings that the human mouth contains bacteria capable of taking up and expressing naked DNA containing antibiotic resistance marker genes, and similar transformable bacteria are also present in the respiratory tracts.

14. What both regulatory authorities have failed to consider is that transgenic pollens, which may have increased allergenicity and toxicity besides, will almost certainly spread far afield to the general public. Similarly, the current unregulated practice of feeding farm animals transgenic grain and plant remains, and transgenic wastes, both ensilaged and otherwise, is endangering the health of farm animals and of human beings in spreading antibiotic resistance marker genes and other transgenic DNA.

15. Serious health concerns are also raised by the cauliflower mosaic viral (CaMV) promoter in transgenic DNA. The CaMV promoter, widely used to boost expression of transgenes, is known to contain a 'recombination hotspot'. One common mechanism of recombination involves the double-stranded DNA breaking and joining with other double-stranded DNA. This has been identified as the mechanism generating many different lines of transgenic rice during a routine experiment. Extensive recombination at the hotspot has taken place in the absence of the viral recombinase enzyme, indicating that the host plant cell can catalyse such recombinations. Thus, the CaMV promoter has an enhanced capability to transfer horizontally, with potentially dangerous consequences.

16. CaMV is closely related to human hepatitis B virus, and also has a reverse transcriptase gene related to that in retroviruses such as the AIDS-associated HIV. Moreover, at least one regulatory sequence for viral replication in CaMV may be interchangeable with that in HIV. Thus, the CaMV promoter not only enhances horizontal gene transfer, but has the potential to reactivate dormant viruses (which are in all genomes) and to generate new viruses by recombination.

17. The British Medical Association, in their interim report (published May, 1999), called for an indefinite moratorium on the releases of GMOs pending further research on new allergies, the spread of antibiotic resistance genes and the effects of transgenic DNA. This position is fully in accord with the precautionary principle.

18. Contrary to the claims of the UK Government, no useful results can be obtained in the current massive 'farm-scale' trials of transgenic herbicide-tolerant oil-seed rape and maize where the spread of transgenic pollens cannot be controlled, and which make no attempts to monitor for horizontal gene transfer or for impacts on health.

19. We urge all Governments to take proper account of the now substantial scientific evidence of hazards arising from GM technology and many of its products, and to impose an immediate moratorium on further releases in accordance with the precautionary principle. In particular, Governments should negotiate a strong and effective International Biosafety Protocol under the Convention of Biological Diversity, and to insist that biosafety legislations at the national and international levels take precedence over trade and financial agreements of the WTO.

20. Research into sustainable, non-corporate agricultural systems which do not involve GM crops should be widely supported. Many of those systems have already resulted in increased yield and income for family farmers, diminished environmental impacts, and improvements in nutrition and health for all.

 World Scientists' Statement      

World Scientists' Statement launched in Cartegena, Columbia, (Feb. 1999) during the UN Convention of Biological Diversity Conference on the International Biosafety Protocol, calling on all governments to:

* Impose an immediate moratorium on further environmental releases of transgenic crops, food and animal-feed products for at least 5 years.
* Ban patents on living organisms, cell lines and genes.
* Support a comprehensive, independent public enquiry into the future of agriculture and food security for all, taking account of the full range of scientific findings as well as socioeconomic and ethical implications.

Signed (240 scientists from 32 countries):

  1. Prof. Adolfo E. Boy, Horticulture and Sustainable Agri. Univ. Moron, Chair of Inst. of Sustainble Agriculture, Argentina
  2. Dr. Graeme E. Browne, General Practitioner, Melbourne, PSRAST, Australia
  3. Dr. Horst W. Doelle, Prof. Micobiology, Univ. Queensland retired, Chair of International Organisation for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Director, MIRCEN-Biotechnology, Brisbance and Pacific Regional Networ, Australia
  4. Dr. Lynette J. Dumble, Medical Scientist, Women’s Health & Environment, University of Melbourne, Australia
  5. Angela Fehringer, Anthropology Student, Sydney, Australia
  6. Stephen Glanville PDC, ECOS Design, Australia
  7. Dr. Richard Hindmarsh, Envinronmental Social Scientist, University of Queensland, Australia
  8. Margaret Jackson, B.Sc.Genetics, National Genetics Awareness Alliance, Australia
  9. Lisa McDonald, Agronomist, CRC for Sustainable Sugar Production, James Cook University, Australia
  10. Dr. Peter J. McMachon, Plant Physiologist, Genethics, Australia Conservation Foundation, Australia
  11. Dr. Paul Nelson, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB, Australia
  12. Dr. Ted Steele, Molecular Immunologist, U.  Wollengong, Australia
  13. DI Gertrude Kaffenbock. Ph.D. candidate, Agricultural Economist, St. Polton, Austria
  14. Dr. Maria G. Neunteufel, Economist, Vienna, Austria
  15. Dr Farhad Mazhar, Ecologist, New Agricultural Movement, Bangladesh
  16. Paulo Roberto Martins, Research Institute of Technology, Brazil
  17. Renata Menasche, Anthropologist, Federal Un. of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  18. Dr Thomas R. Preston, Un. of Tropical Agriculture, Cambodia
  19. Prof. Emeritus Braxton, M. Alfred, Anthropologist, Univ. British Columbia, Canada
  20. Dr Warren Bell, MD, Canad. Assoc. of Physicians for the Environ., Canada
  21. Denis Cauchon, M.Sc. Ph.D. candidate, Toxicology, Ecole HEC, Montreal, Canada
  22. Yoon C. Chen, B.Sc., DPM Podiatrist, Foot Clinic, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
  23. Prof. Alain Cuerrier, Taxonomy/Botany, Quebec, Univ. of Montreal, Canada
  24. Prof. Joe Cummins, Geneticist, University of Western Ontario, Canada
  25. Prof. Emeritus Edwin E. Daniel, FRSC, Health Science, McMaster Univ. Ontario, Canada
  26. Virginia F. Flamarique, AMD, Consultant Agrologist, Edmonton, Canada
  27. Aaron Jette, Anthrolopogy student, McGill Univ., Montreal, Canada
  28. Dr. Gavin A. Kemp, ret. Researcher, Vegetable Crop Breeding, Lethbridge, Canada
  29. Prof. Ronald Labonte, Population Health Research Director, Ontario, Canada
  30. Prof. Abby Lippman, Epidemologist & Geneticist, McGill Un. Canada
  31. Prof. Ralph C. Martin, Plant Science, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, Canada
  32. Laura Mitchell, Earth Scientist, APEGBG, Canada
  33. Dr. James A. Nero, D.C., General Practitioner, neuromusculoskeletal medicine, Coquitlam, Canada
  34. Anna D. Noikov, B.A.B.Ed., Wholistic Practitioner, Edmonton, Canada
  35. Dr. Ingrid C. Northwood, Biochemist, Simon Fraser Univ., Canada
  36. Steve Robak, Canadian Department of National Defence, Canada
  37. Dr. Carolyn A. Simmerman, ND.DC, Docotr., Whole Health Centre, Edmonton, Canada
  38. Prof. David Suzuki, David Suzuki Foundation, Geneticist, U.B.C., Canada
  39. John B. Van Loon, M.Sc., Storage Entomologist, retired, Canadian Grain Commission, Winnipeg, PSRAST, Canada
  40. Prof. R.M. Wolfson, Physicist, Maharishi Vedic College, Ottawa, Canada
  41. Dr. John C. Worketin, Retired computer scientist, Ontario, Canada
  42. Damjan Bogdanovic, PhD candidate, Un Zagreb, Croatia
  43. Damir Magdic, M.Sc.  Food Scientist, Osijek Un, Croatia
  44. Prof. Marijan Jost, Plant Geneticist, Agricultural College, Krizevci, Croatia
  45. Dr. Zora Matrovic, MD, MS, Vice-President, Croatia Natural Law Party, Croatia
  46. Vesna Samobor, M.Sc. Agricultural College, Krizevci, Croatia
  47. Prof. Drasko Seman, Ecologist, Univ. Zagreb Medical School, Croatian Man and Biosphere Committee, UNESCO South Eastern Mediterranean Sea Project, UNESCO Comm. Ed. & Communication, INCN, European Committee on Environmental Ed., IUCN, Croatia
  48. Prof Anton Svajger, Un Zagreb Medical School, Croatia
  49. Dr. Gennadi Kobzar, Senior Scientist, Biomedicine, Institute of Chemistry, Tallinn Technical Univ. PSRAST, Estonia.
  50. Dr. Tewolde Egziabher, Agronomist, Min. of the Environment, Spokesperson for African Region, Ethiopia
  51. Sylvain Allombert, M.Sc., Ph.D. Student, Ecology, Centre National de la Recherche Scientificque, Monpellier, PSRAST, France
  52. Dr. Jean-Pierre Berlan, Directeur de Recherches INR/CTESI, France
  53. Dr. Luc G. Bulot, Researcher, ESA CNRS 6019- Centre de Sedimentologie- Paleontologie, Marseille, PSRAST, France
  54. Dr. George Capouthier, Biologist, Univ. Paris, France
  55. Dr. Marie Christine Dictor, Unité Biotechnologie, BRGM Environment & Procédés, France
  56. Dr. Jean Estrangin, MK, General Practice, Grenoble, France
  57. Alain Fardif, Certificat of therapist, Paris, France
  58. Dr. Herve Le Meur, Biomathematician, Univ. Paris, France
  59. Dr. Vic Norris, IFR Systems Integres, Univ. Rouen, France
  60. Dr. Jean-Michel Panoff, Microbiologist, Univ. of Caen, Caen, France
  61. Thieerry Raffin, Sociologue, President de ‘Inf’OGM, France
  62. Prof. Gilles-Eric Seralini, Laboratoire de Biochimie& Moleculaire, Univ. Caen, France
  63. Dr. Reinald Doebel, Institute of Sociology, Rural and Development Soc., Westfaelische Wilhelms Univ., Germany
  64. Dr. Beatrix Tappeser, Head of Dept., Risk analysis of genetic engineering, Institute for Applied Ecology, Freiburg, Germany
  65. Dr. Christine von Weisaeker, Ecoropa, Germany
  66. Dr. Rebecca C. Wade, Molecular Biology, Heidelberg, Germany
  67. Dr Christiane Boecker, MCommH, Community Health, Haiti
  68. Kevin Li, B.Sc., Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  69. Prof. Ervin Laszlo, President, The Club of Budapest, Hungary
  70. Dr. Muhua Achary, Environmentalist, St. Joseph's College, Bangalore, India
  71. Dr. Thomas S. Cox, Research Geneticist, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Manhattan, KS (retired) - present address Hyderabad, India
  72. C. Nanjunda Murthy, M.Sc. Plant Scientist, Karnataka, India
  73. Dr. N. Raghauram, Plant Molecular Biology, Univ. Mumbai, India
  74. Devinder Sharma, Geneticist, Plant Breeder and Writer, Forum for Biotechnology and Food Security, New Delhi, India
  75. Dr. Vandana Shiva, Research Institute for Science and Ecology, India
  76. Dr. Ernawati, Gender and Rural Development, Institute of Rural Development, Indonesia
  77. Dr Giorgio Cingolani, Agricultural Economist, Italy
  78. Dr. Bruno D'Udine, Behaviour Ecologist,  University of Udine, Italy
  79. Prof. Adriano Decarli, Cancer Epidermiology, INST, Univ. Milan, Italy
  80. Prof. Leopoldo Silvestroni, Endocrinologist, Univ. of Rome, Italy
  81. Professor. Em. Shingo Shibata, Hiroshima University; Environmental Sociology and Biosafety, Tokyo, Japan
  82. Prof. Atuhiro Sibatani, Molecular Biologist, Osaka, Japan
  83. Dr Shiron Sugita, Plant Geneticist, Nagoya U. Japan
  84. Dr Noeoru Tagishita, Plant Geneticist, Jap. Assoc. Agro-Nature, Tokyo, Japan
  85. Dr Machiko Yasukohchi, PLAN - International Japan Public Relations Team, Japan
  86. Jaroen Compeerapap, Environmental Law and Development Center, The Netherlands
  87. Robert Anderson, PSRG, New Zealand
  88. Sigrid D. Houlette, B.Sc. Solid Waste Manager, Environemtal Engineering, Local Government, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  89. Dr. Shona L. Lamoureaux, Plant Ecology, Christchurch, New Zealand
  90. Dr Robert Mann, Ecologist, Auckland, New Zealand
  91. Dr Peter R Wills, Theoretical Biology, Uni. Auckland, New Zealand
  92. Dr Ingrid Olesen, Senior Research Scientist, Institute of Aquaculture Res. Ltd, Norway
  93. Dr. Lars Rasmussen, MD, General Practitioner, Univ. Oslo, Mesnali, Norway
  94. Prof. Terje Traavik, Virologist, University of Tromso, Norway
  95. Dr. Pamela G. Fernadez, Agronomist, U. Philippines, Los Banos, Philippines
  96. Charles T. Olsen, D.C., Chiropractic Clinic, Davao Clinic, PSRAST, Philippines
  97. Dr. Romeo F. Quijano, Pesticide Action Network, Pharmacologist/Toxiologist, Philippines
  98. Prof. Oscar B. Zamora, Agronomist, U. Philippines, Los Banos, Philippines
  99. Dr. Margarida Silva, Molecular Biologist, Portuguese Catholic Univ., Portugal
  100. Dr. Franciso J.C. M. Teixeira, Researcher, Geophysics, Geological and Mining Institute, Lisbon, Portugal
  101. Dr. Clara E. Carrasco Genetics and Molecular Biology, UPR Ponce, Puerto Rico
  102. Glenn Ashton, Director, Ekogaia Foundation, and Green Party, South Africa
  103. Dr Gregorio Alvar, Biotechnologist,.  Computense U. Madrid, Spain
  104. Javier Blasco, Aragonese Ctr for Rural European Information, Spain
  105. Prof. Ernest Garcia, Ph. D., Sociology, Univ. Valencia, Dept. Sociologia I Antropologia Social, Valencia, Spain
  106. Prof. F. Pura Duart Soler, Sociology, Univ. Valencia, PSRAST, Spain
  107. Prof. Every N. Gummesson, Management, Stockholm Univ. PSRAST, Sweden
  108. Said O. Holmin, Lic. Technology, Rector, Computer Science, College of Creative Computer Science, Stockholm, Sweden
  109. Dr. Katarina Leppanen, History of Ideas,  Gothenburg Uni, Sweden,
  110. Dr. Jaan Suurkula, Physician, Physicians and Scientists for Responsible Assessment of Science and Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
  111. Dr. Daniel Amman, Cell Biologist,  Tech. Switzerland
  112. Dr. Ruth Goseth, Dermatologist, ISDE, Switzerland
  113. Florianne Koechlin, Biologist, World Wildlife Fund, Switzerland
  114. Yvan Maillard, dipl. Sc. Nat. ETH, Environementalist, Ecology, Fribourg, PSRAST, Switzerland
  115. Yves Schatzle, Agronomist and Economist, Switzerland
  116. Verena Soldati, Biotechnologist, Basler Appell, Switzerland.
  117. Prof. Omboom Luanratana, Pharmacologist, Univ. of Mahedol, Bangkok, Thailand
  118. Dr. Michael L. Abrahams, (retired) Aeronautics, Bristol, PSRAST, UK
  119. Dr. Michael Antoniou, Molecular Geneticist, Guy's Hospital, UK
  120. Dr. Susan Bardocz, Geneticist, Aberdeen,  UK
  121. Manoel Bascoi, Geneticist, PhD Candidate, JII, UK
  122. Dr. David Bellamy, Biologist and Broadcaster, London, UK
  123. Lynda Birke , Biologist, Liverpool Uni. Veterinary School, UK
  124. Dr. David A.H. Birley, General Medical Practitioner, Swindon, UK
  125. Gerard C. Bodeker, Ed. D., Senior Clinical Lecturer in Public Health, Univ. Oxford Medical School, UK
  126. Sophie H. Bown, B.Sc. Ph.D. Candidate, Zoology, Manchester Univ., UK
  127. Dr. M.E. Caparis, Nea Ecologia, Marine Biology, London Univ., UK
  128. Dr. Alan Currier, Taxonomist, IRBV, UK
  129. Gordon Daly Ph. D. student, Gene Therapist, Kennedy Inst. London, UK
  130. Stuart Daly Ph. D. student, Transgenic group, Charing Cross Hosp. UK
  131. Joseph A. Gari, Marie Curie Research Fellow, Political Ecology, University of Oxford, UK
  132. Dr. Alassandro Gimona, Research Scientist, Ecology, MLURI, Aberdeen, UK
  133. Prof. Brian Goodwin, Biologist, Schumacher College, UK
  134. Edward Goldsmith, Editor, The Ecologist, London, UK
  135. Zac Goldsmith, Editor, The Ecologist, London, UK
  136. Lale Gurel, Bec., Manager, Nature – Macmillan Publishers, London, UK
  137. Dr. Keith H. Halfacree, Univ. Lecturer, Geography, Univ. of Wales Swansea, UK
  138. Dr. John E. Hammond, Engineer, Highfield, UK
  139. Dr. David J Heaf, Biochemist, Wales, UK
  140. Dr. Mae-Wan Ho, Geneticist and Biophysicist, Open University, UK
  141. Patrick Holden, Director, Soil Association, UK
  142. Dr. Vyvyan Howard, Toxipathologist, U. Liverpool, UK
  143. Dr. Brian Hursey, ex FAO Senior Officer for Vector Borne Diseases, Neath , UK.
  144. Prof. Tim Ingold, Anthropologist, University of Aberdeen, UK
  145. Peter Preston Jones, MSc, Environomental Campaigner, UK
  146. Dani Kaye M.Sc. Scientists for Global Responsibility London, UK
  147. David Kaye M.Sc. Scientists for Global Responsibility, London, UK
  148. Dr J. M. Kerr, Bioethics, Winchester College: Oxford U. UK
  149. Dr. Philip Kilner, Cardiac Imaging Specialist, Royal Brompton Hospital, UK
  150. Prof. Richard Lacey, Microbiologist, Leeds, UK
  151. Dr. Colin L.A. Leakey, Plant Geneticist, Cambridge, UK
  152. Darl N. Middleton, Ph. D. Candidate, Environ. Science, Drpt. Civil Engineering, Univ. Manchester, UK
  153. Patrick Mulvany, C Biol Food Security Policy Adviser, specialising in Agricultural Biodiversity Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) UK
  154. Dr. Harash Narang, Pathologist, BSE expert, UK
  155. Dr. Eva Novotny, Astrophysicist, Univ. Cambridge (retired), UK
  156. Dr. David Packham, Material Scientist, U. Bath, UK
  157. Fatima Pelica, Biochemist, PhD Candidate, JII, UK
  158. Dr. Michel Pimbert, Agricultural Ecologist, International Institute for Environment and Develoment, London,UK
  159. Dr. Robert C. Poller, Organic Chemist, U. London, UK
  160. Prof. Arpad Pusztai, Biochemist, Formerly from Rowett Institute, UK
  161. Dr. Jerry Ravetz, Philosopher of Science, London, UK
  162. Angela Ryan, Molecular biologist, Open Univ. UK
  163. Dr. Jean A.D. Saunders, BDS, LDS RCS, Dental Surgeon (retired) Faringdon, UK
  164. Prof. Peter Saunders, Biomathematician, U. London, UK
  165. Dr. Gesa Staats de Yanes, Veterinarian Toxicologists, U. Liverpool, UK
  166. Prof. Ian Stewart, Biomathematics, U. Warwick, UK
  167. Dr. Gene S. Thomas, Agriculturist, UK
  168. Dr. Margaret J. Tyson, Glossop, PSRAST, UK
  169. Dr Tom Wakeford, Biologist, U. of East London, UK
  170. Barbara Wood-Kaczmar, M.Sc., Science writer, UK
  171. Dr. Karen Wren, University teacher, Geography, St. Andrews Univ., St. Andrews, Fife, UK
  172. Dr. Catherine Badley, Biologist,  University of Michigan USA
  173. Dr. Britt Bailey, Senior Researcher, CETOS, Ca, USA
  174. Prof. Phil Bereano, Council for Responsible Genetics, U. Washington USA
  175. Dr Walter Bortz, Physician, Palo Alto, USA
  176. Dr. Douglas H Boucher, Ecologist, Hood College USA
  177. Prof. Liebe F. Cavalieri, Mathematical Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour, Univ. Minnesota, St. Paul, USA
  178. Vijaykumar V.C. Chalasani, MS, Consultant East Brunswick USA
  179. Dr. Ignacio Chapela, Microbiologist & Ecologist, U.C. Berkeley, USA
  180. Kristin Cobelius M.Sc. Student, U. Michigan USA
  181. Dr. Martha Crouch, Biologist, Indiana University, USA
  182. Dr. Carolyn F.A. Dean, MD ND, Consultant, Integrative Medicine, Holeopathic Pharmakeia, NY, USA Board of Women for a Safe Future
  183. Dr. David Ehrenfeld, Biologist/Ecologist, Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA
  184. Dr. Samuel Epstein, School of Public Health, Univ. Illinois, Chicago, USA
  185. Juiet S Erazo PhD student U. of Michigan USA
  186. Professor John B. .Fagan, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, Iowa, USA
  187. Dr. Ty Fitzmorris, Ecologist, Hampshire College USA
  188. Dr Michael W Fox, Veterinarian & Bioethicist, Washington DC, USA
  189. Cynthia A. Frye, FS/MS Student, Biology, Univ. Texas Medical Branch, USA
  190. Prof. John Garderineer, Biologist, U. Michigan USA
  191. Dr. Barbara K. Given, Faculty Researcher, George Mason Univ. Fairfax, USA
  192. Dr. Jay L. Glaser, MK, Medical Director, Maharishi Ayurveda Medical Center, Lancaster, USA
  193. Dr Herve Grenier, Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Change, Univ. Washington,USA
  194. Dr. Gayle Robin Hamilton, Assoc. Prof. Centre for the Advancement of Public Health, Fairfax, VA, USA
  195. Rev. Dorothy A. Harper, Biotethics, Washington, USA
  196. Paul C. Helgeson, BSME Senior Engineer, Middleton, WI, USA
  197. Prof. Martha Herbert , Pediatric Neurologist, Mass. Gen. Hosp. USA
  198. Philip H Howard, Ph.D candidate, Rural Sociology, Uni. of Missouri, USA
  199. Prof. Ruth Hubbard, Biologist, Harvard University, USA
  200. Alex Jack, Planetary Medicine, Jushi Institute, Becket, Mass, USA
  201. Dr. Gary P. Kaplan, Assoc. Prof. Neurology, North Shore Univ. Hosp., NYU School of Medicine, Mass, USA
  202. Dr. Arlene M. Kellman, D.O., Physician, Tucson, USA
  203. Prof. Jonathan King, Molecular Biology, MIT, Cambridge, Council for Responsible Genetics, USA
  204. Dr Jack Kloppenburg, Un. Wisconsin, Rural Sociologist, USA
  205. Heidei A. Kratsch, R.D./Graduate Student, Plant Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin, USA
  206. Dr. Louis H. Krut, MK, CHB.:MD, St. Louis Univ. Medical School, Missouri, USA
  207. U.V. Kutzli Ph.D. Candidate, U of Michigan USA
  208. Dr. Marc Lappe, Geneticist and Director CETOS, Ca, USA
  209. Sean Lyman Student Gettysbury College USA
  210. Dr. Timothy Mann, Geographer, Hampshire College
  211. Anne-Marie Mayer, Ph. D. candidate, Nutrition, Cornell Univ., USA
  212. Lynn V. McIndoo, Student, Environmental Resources Engineering, Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, USA
  213. Vuejuin McKersen M.Sc, Natural Resource Manager U. Michigan, USA
  214. Dr. Stephen L. Mikesell, Anthropology and Political Ecology, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison, USA
  215. Dr. Usha Mukhtyar, M.D. Consultant, Gynecology & Obstetrics, Bronx, New York USA
  216. Prof. Stuart A. Newman, Developmental Biology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York USA
  217. Lena S Nicolai PhD Student University of Michigan USA
  218. Dr. Ingrid C. Northwood, Biochemist, Simon Fraser University, USA
  219. Dr. Ronald E. Openshaw, Adjunct Faculty, Geology, Physics, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, USA
  220. Marial Peelle, Biol./Anthropologist Undergrad. Swarthmors College USA
  221. Dr. Juette Peufecto, Biologist, U of Michigan USA
  222. Chris Picone M.Sc. Soil Microbiologist, U. Michigan USA
  223. Dr. Caros R Ramirez, Biologist, St Lawrance University USA
  224. Prof. Philip J. Regal, Dept. Ecology, Evolution and Behavior Univ. Minnesota, St. Paul, USA
  225. Professor R.H.Richardson,Ph.D. Professor of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, USA
  226. Dr. Peter M. Rosset, Ins. for Food and Development Policy, USA
  227. Prof. Philip B. Rudnick, Emeritus, Chemistry, West Chester Univ., Pennsylvania, PSRAST, USA
  228. Dr. Arthur Rybeck Jr D.D.S. Dentistry and Organic Farmer, Wheeling, USA
  229. Thomas J. Saunders, Student, Environmental Science, Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, USA
  230. Dr. Nancy A Schult, Entomologist, U of Wisconsin-Madison USA
  231. Dr. Brian Schultz, Ecologist, Hampshire College USA
  232. Prof. David Schwartzman, Geochemist, Howard Uni. Washington DC USA
  233. Dr Linda Jean Sheperd,  Biochemist, Gaia Blessings, USA
  234. Dr. Gerald Smith, Zoologist, U. Michigan, USA
  235. Dr. John Soluri, Historian of Science, Carnegie Mellon U USA
  236. Doreen Stabinsky Geneticist International Environmental Politics and Policy, California State University at Sacrament, United States
  237. Rosa Vazquez Student in Biology, Ohio State University USA
  238. Ryan White Student St Lawrence University USA
  239. Dr, Suzanne M. Wuerthele, Toxicologist, Toxicology & Risk Assessment, federal regulatory agency, Denver, USA
  240. Dr. John Zamarra, M.D., Cardiology, Fullerton, USA